The church of San Giovanni degli Eremiti in Palermo, Sicily. It operated as a masjid during the era of Muslim Sicily.

Muslim Sicily Part 1: The Rise and Fall of Islam in Italy

Regarding the topic of Islam on the European continent, the focus is usually exclusively on the period of Muslim Spain, al-Andalus, that lasted from...
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The First Friday Sermon in Salah al-Din’s Liberated Jerusalem

After 88 years of Crusader control, Salah al-Din’s Ayyubid Empire liberated Jerusalem on 2 October, 1187 CE (27 Rajab, 583 AH). During the era...
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Al Madha – An Old Spanish Poem in Praise of the Prophet

Below is a transcription and recording of a Spanish nashīd in praise of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and in celebration of his birth that dates from the...
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Religious Pluralism in Al-Andalus: Translating An Old Greek Text

The Middle Ages are commonly associated with ideas such as religious intolerance and intellectual backwardness. Images are conjured up of despotic kings using religion...
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A Morisco Appeal to the Ottoman Sultan

Islamic political history can been seen as a cycle that oscillates between power and weakness. The Abbasid caliphate that contributed much to math and science...
Verses 91-98 of Surat Maryam, followed by the first 12 verses of Surat Taha

The World’s Oldest Quran Manuscript

According to new research at the University of Birmingham, a collection of Quranic manuscripts held at the university may be the oldest in the...
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Muslim Depictions of Muhammad – The Hilye

With Prophet Muhammad ﷺ being so central a figure in Islam, it would be natural for generations of Muslims to have had a desire to depict...
Manuscript of Ghazali's work

The Rise and Fall of Mu‘tazilism

The rise of Muslim intellectual achievement that began in the mid-eighth century was partially a by-product of a massive translation effort undertaken by the...
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The Cedid Atlas

The Cedid Atlas (The New Atlas in Ottoman Turkish) was one of the first printed atlases in the Muslim world. It was commissioned by the...
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The Arab Revolt of World War One

No war has had as big an impact on the modern Middle East as the First World War, which lasted from 1914-1918. The war...