Pre-Requisites for Ijtihad – From Molla Fenari’s “Usul”

The use of independent reasoning, known as ijtihād, has always played a prominent role in the derivation of Islamic law. While it is often portrayed today...

Hanafi Legal Theory in the Ottoman Empire: The Case of the Cash Waqf

The study of Islamic law in the Ottoman Empire is a vibrant and dynamic field. After the Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century, the...

The Earliest Ottoman Scholars

The Ottoman State was established in 1299 CE and went on to become one of the premier empires of the Muslim world within a...

Muslim Sicily: The Rise and Fall of Islam in Italy

Regarding the topic of Islam on the European continent, the focus is usually exclusively on the period of Muslim Spain, al-Andalus, that lasted from...

The First Friday Sermon in Salah al-Din’s Liberated Jerusalem

After 88 years of Crusader control, Salah al-Din’s Ayyubid Empire liberated Jerusalem on 2 October, 1187 CE (27 Rajab, 583 AH). During the era...

Al Madha – An Old Spanish Poem in Praise of the Prophet

Below is a transcription and recording of a Spanish nashīd in praise of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and in celebration of his birth that dates from the...

Religious Pluralism in Al-Andalus: Translating An Old Greek Text

The Middle Ages are commonly associated with ideas such as religious intolerance and intellectual backwardness. Images are conjured up of despotic kings using religion...

A Morisco Appeal to the Ottoman Sultan

Islamic political history can been seen as a cycle that oscillates between power and weakness. The Abbasid caliphate that contributed much to math and science...

The World’s Oldest Quran Manuscript

According to new research at the University of Birmingham, a collection of Quranic manuscripts held at the university may be the oldest in the...

Muslim Depictions of Muhammad – The Hilye

With Prophet Muhammad ﷺ being so central a figure in Islam, it would be natural for generations of Muslims to have had a desire to depict...